THE ROMAN MILITARY CAMP CONBUSTICA

The ancient site near village of Kladorub is localized in 18 century by F. Kanitz. In 1890 V. Dobrusky visited the site and described a quadrangular fortress measuring 140 x 140 feet with walls up to 4 m thick. Later the site is identified with the Roman road station Conbustica mentioned in Tabula Peutengeriana on the road between Ratiaria and Timacum Minus to Adriatic Sea (TP VII 5). Village with a similar name (Combusticia) is mentioned in Anonymi Ravennatis Cosmographia (RC IV 7), but located on the road between Philippopolis and Serdica. No other data about the name of the site are known. Since the late 19 century, however, the name Conbustica (Combustica) is used in the scientific literature as the antique name of the site located near the modern village of Kladorub. In the middle of the last century B. Gerov based on epigraphic data defines Conbustica as "the most significant center of city life and Roman population in the hinterland of Ratiaria".

The site is located east of the modern village Kladorub on a large plateau concluded between the influx of the River Salash in Archar River. The plateau covers an area of over 20 hectares at an average altitude of 170 meters and dominates the surrounding terrain, providing visibility over the valley of Archar. From the north, east and south steep banks of the two rivers are natural defenses of the terrain, accessible only from the west. Studies in 2008 proved the existence of a rectangular fort, located in the center of the plateau and orientated SW with dimensions 140 x 110 m.

The earliest traces of occupation of the site are associated with the presence of thick coatings of opal clay, on which in all sectors had registered 10-15 cm layer of charcoal and ashes. Unfortunately, the destructions caused by treasure hunter's intervention did not allow delineation of the plan of these structures. It can be assumed that it comes to floors of temporary buildings that in height were with wooden structures and coated with clay. Findings of a large amount of clay plaster with prints of bars on them prove this assumption.

Findings of a large amount of clay plaster with prints of bars on them prove this assumption. The remains of clay coatings step directly on the sterile yellow loess and they are registered as individual spots, among which in 2009 was investigated a pit with materials from the time of Flavian dynasty. Strong opals of clay floors and the presence of a thick layer of charcoal and ash on them indicate that these structures were destroyed by intense fire. The terrain for a long time thereafter remains uninhabitable. These data allow us to express a new hypothesis concerning the name of the town, whose origins are likely to be associated with the Latin word "combustium" - burned.

Findings derived from this earliest layer can be placed no later than the Claudius-Tiberius time. Upper chronological limit is currently not supported by sufficient categorical data.

To this first chronological horizon belongs a find of brick with stamp [Leg (ionis) VII C (laudiae)] p (iae) f (idelis). The brick with stamp of Legio VII Claudiae in Conbustica states the dating of such finds, coming from Ratiaria and clarifies the nature of the military unit located in this place, which may be related to vexillatio of the same legion.

On the destruction of the Early Roman camp was discovered a layer connected with the establishment of the fortification wall. In 2010 in this layer were found four coins of the Emperors Constantius II, Julian and Valens, the latest of which minted in 364-375. The coins dated the construction of the stone fort in the last quarter of the 4 century.

The final period is presented by 0.5 m thick layer of stone destruction, where were found various household items, metal ornaments, tools and a large amount of household and building ceramics. The layer is dated by cons in the end of 5 century.



Publications

К. Лука. Технологични характеристики на битовата керамика от ранноримско войнишко жилище и късноантични нива от Conbustica при с. Кладоруб, община Димово. – In: Ratiaria Semper Floreat, I, 2014, 284-330.

К. Лука. Ранноримски военен лагер и късноримско селище CONBUSTICА до с. Кладоруб, Община Видин. Археологически открикия и разкопки през 2011 г., София 2012, 272-274.

К. Лука. Археологическо проучване на ранноримски военен лагер и късноримско селище CONBUSTICА до с. Кладоруб, Община Видин. - Археологически открития и разкопки през 2010 г., София, 2011, 287-289.

К. Лука. Археологически проучвания на ранноримски военен лагер и късноримско селище Conbustica до с. Кладоруб, Община Димово. - Археологически открития и разкопки през 2009 г., София, 2010, 327-329.

К. Лука. Сондажни археологически проучвания на античен обект „Калето” при с. Кладоруб, община Димово. – Археологически открития и разкопки през 2008 г., София, 2009, 437-441.



Presentations

Rapport for the archaeological excavations in 2008 at Roman military camp and Late Roman fortress Conbustica

Rapport for the archaeological excavations in 2009 at Roman military camp and Late Roman fortress Conbustica

Rapport for the archaeological excavations in 2010 at Roman military camp and Late Roman fortress Conbustica

Rapport for the archaeological excavations in 2011 at Roman military camp and Late Roman fortress Conbustica



Gallery